The Congress expressed hope that PrussiaRussiaand Austria would grant tolerance and protection to their minorities, which ultimately they disregarded, engaging in organized discrimination.
It was further argued that promoting the notion of shared citizenship with equal rights for all might be as much a priority issue for countries of the MENA Promoting and protecting minority rights essay as it remains for Indonesia today.
Origins, Drafting, and Intent Univ. As its name suggests, the OSCE is an organization concerned with regional security, specifically, conflict prevention, crisis management, and postconflict rehabilitation. Thus, as they come to address the multiple challenges of protecting and giving fair political representation to their minority populations, the emerging new democracies of the MENA region have much prior experience - positive and negative - to draw on.
MENA transitional countries should thus avoid the temptation to rush - or be rushed by outsiders - into rapid decentralisation programmes that attempt to "fix" all aspects of centre-region governance relations in one fell swoop.
It is hoped that these insights will indeed prove to be both relevant and useful in the context of efforts to address challenges of minority protection, recognition, participation and representation in new and aspiring MENA-region democracies.
The European Convention on Human Rights, perhaps the most significant regional human rights instrument in Europe, does not expressly enshrine minority rights.
It suggests that international minority rights speak to wrongs that international law itself produces by organizing global political realities into a legal order.
For this it is vital that the authorities take a proactive lead both in ensuring that minority rights are respected on the ground, and in actively advocating within society for the fundamental principles of tolerance and inclusion upon which they are based.
What distinguishes European from international initiatives is the relative visibility of the stance that the legitimacy of minority rights rests on their capacity to promote political stability in the region. If the various instruments and institutions devoted to the protection of minority rights in international human rights law fit awkwardly within a universal account, this raises an obvious question.
These general conclusions, deriving both from the specific transitional experience of Indonesia and more generally from that of numerous "new" democracies over the last two decades, are ones to which nascent MENA region democracies would do well to pay close attention.
One view is as follows: It does not enshrine any individual or collective rights for the speakers of these languages. With respect to political parties, women are the only disadvantaged group for which there is any form of formal quota system. The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, also a product of the Council of Europe, reaches further into the public sphere than the Framework Convention.
In administration, the judiciary and other public bodies, it was suggested that minority representation is very low, particularly at the higher levels of office. Others provide more targeted protection to national minorities, that is, communities bound by ethnicity and culture that are historically and territorially concentrated both within and across adjacent state boundaries.
But acceptance of this assumption is wary and partial. In this respect, moreover, it is important to take account of the central role of customary institutions and decision-making processes in many MENA region countries - democracies and non-democracies alike - notably in relation to prevalent, and often powerful, tribal social structures.
The tenuous normative relationship between minority membership and universal value is not the only reason why international law displays ambivalence about the legal significance of minority status.
This account of international minority rights engages at least some of the themes of this symposium in intriguing ways. Several if not all civil and political rights, such as freedom of religion, expression, association, as well as the right to a family life, the equality guarantee, and the right to free elections, are all textually capable of protecting various interests of a minority community.
In this light, this essay reflects on the issue of the centrality to democracy of the protection and promotion of minority rights via a dual approach: Minority rights might protect key features of human identity, yet they possess the capacity to divide people into different communities, create insiders and outsiders, pit ethnicity against ethnicity, and threaten the universal aspirations that inform the dominant understanding of the mission of the field.
Seen in this light, minority rights serve as instruments that can mitigate injustices associated with the kinds of recalibrations of sovereign power embodied in the Treaty of Lausanne that international law treats as possessing international legal force.
This approach has the additional merit of building on broader Indian lessons learned with respect to the impact of "reservations" on the prevailing socio-economic conditions of intended beneficiaries of these policies. Several of its decisions contemplate the idea that the right to enjoy one's culture includes rights to engage in economic activities essential to cultural reproduction.
Interpretations of the increasing pressure on the Ahmadis vary.
Following the advent of democracy, however, Transmigrasi was significantly reduced, among other things from a combination of the impact of decentralisation measures which have given local authorities a greater say in relation to population migrations and fears in some regions of the country, notably Papua, that indigenous local groups were fast becoming minorities in their own cities and districts.
The capacity to participate in one's culture, to hold and exercise spiritual beliefs, and to speak to others in a shared language may plausibly be thought to possess universal value. Whether they are considered helpful or relevant with respect to the challenges confronting MENA countries engaged in the complex process of promoting and entrenching their democratic transitions is ultimately a matter of internal, contextualised judgement by governments and other critical actors within particular societies in this region.
And as one interviewee expressed the broader issue to which this points: The convention was drafted in light of wartime atrocities primarily if not exclusively as an instrument that would safeguard interests associated with civil and political rights from the raw exercise of collective political power.
The civil and political freedom of minority members is more likely to be interfered with than those of the majority, and, therefore, the field is attentive to the various forms of discrimination and marginalization that minorities may experience.Promoting and Protecting Minority Rights Essay examples - The founding fathers of the United States Constitution suspected that through democracy, a government ruled by the majority, the majority could easily become tyrannical in its usage of unrestricted power.
Essay about Protecting Rights Versus Upholding the Law - Discuss the critical value of protecting rights versus upholding the law.
Provide examples to support your claims It is very critical in our current Canadian society that individuals rights are being upheld, but at the same time so is the law.
While indigenous peoples can claim minority rights under international law, there are United Nations mandates and mechanisms dedicated specifically to protecting their rights. In its work, the United Nations has applied the. 4 principle of self-identification with regard to indigenous peoples and.
Human Rights and International Law INTRODUCTION Human nature has a habit that in any society, even one of the most civilized one, is sure to witness disputes between men, man and the society, and of course man and State, and so on. The Protection of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples Respecting Cultural Diversity The Framework of the Protection of Groups III.
Notions 1. The Lack of Definition of a Minority 2. National Minorities and New Minorities 3. Indigenous Peoples 4. Cultural Diversity IV. The Universal Protection of Minority Rights 1. Specific Treaty Provisions 2. ii. PROMOTING AND PROTECTING MINORITY RIGHTS. Note. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply.Download